Girls and Games REFERENCES
Girls as
Designers Project
Michigan State University

Partially Supported by a Grant from the National Science Foundation

Last updated June 2004

American Association of University Women (1991). Shortchanging girls; shortchanging America. Washington, DC: AAUW.


American Association of University Women (2000). Tech-Savvy: Educating Girls in the New Computer Age. Washington, DC: AAUW.


Bae, Y., Choy, S., Geddes, C., Sable, J., and Snyder, T. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women. National Center for Education Statistics, U. S. Department of Education, NCES 2000-030.


Berk, L. E. (2003). Child development (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Brunner, C., Bennett, D., & Honey, M. (1998). Girl games and technological desire. In J. Cassell & H. Jenkins (Eds.), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and computer games (pp.72-88). Cambridge: MIT Press.


Bryce, J., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22, 1-15.


Buchman, D.D., & Funk, J.B. (1996). Video and computer games in the 90s: children’s time commitment and game preference. Children Today, 24, 12-15.


Cassell, J., & Jenkins, H. (1998). Chess for girls? Feminism and computer games. In J. Cassell & H. Jenkins (Eds.). From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and computer games (pp. 2-45). Cambridge: MIT Press.


Colwell, J., Grady, C., & Rhaki, S. (1995). Computer games, self-esteem and gratification of needs in adolescents. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 195-206.


Colwell, J. C., & Payne, J. (2000). Negative correlates of computer gameplay. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 295-310.


Crawford, C. (n.d.). Retrieved February 18, 2004, from


Culp, K. M., & Honey, M. (2002). Imagining less-gendered game worlds. In N. Yelland, A. Rubin & E. McWilliam (Eds.), Ghosts in the machine: Women's voices in research with technology (pp. 33-53). New York: Peter Lang Publishing.


Directorate for Education and Human Resources (1999). Voyages of the mind, informal learning. Synergy. National Science Foundation.


Entertainment Software Association. (2003). Game players are a more diverse gender, age and socio-economic group than ever, according to new poll. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from


Eisenberg, N., Murray, E., & Hite, T. (1982). Children’s reasoning regarding sex-typed toy choices. Child Development, 53, 81-86.


Falstein, N. (1997). The geeker sex. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from:


Funk, J. B., and Buchman, D. D. (1996a). Playing violent video and computer  games and adolescent self-concept. Journal of Communication 46(2): 19-32.


Funk, J. B., & Buchman, D. D. (1996b). Children's perceptions of gender differences in social approval for playing electronic games. Sex Roles, 35(3/4), 219-231.


Gorriz, C. M., & Medina, C. (2000). Engaging girls with computers through software games. Communications of the ACM, 43(1), 42-49.


Gottfried, A. W. & Brown, C. C. (1986). Play Interactions, the contribution of play materials and parental involvement to children’s development. Lexington Books, Missouri.


Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423, p.534-537.


Greenfield, P. M. (1994). Video games as cultural artifacts. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 3-12.


Griffiths, M.D., & Hunt, N. (1995). Computer game playing in adolescence: Prevalence and demographic indicators. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 189-193.


Griffiths, M.D. (1997). Computer game playing in early adolescence, Youth & Society, 29, 2, 223-236.


The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2002). Key facts: Children and video games: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved March 16, 2004, from:


Huff, C., & Cooper, J. (1987). Sex bias in educational software: The effect of designers’ stereotypes on the software they design. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17(6), 519-532.


Inkpen, K., Upitis, R., Klawe, M., Lawry, J., Anderson, A., Ndunda, M., et al. (1994). We have never forgetful flowers in our garden: Girls' responses to electronic games. Journal of Computers in Math and Science Teaching, 13(4), 383-403.


Interactive Digital Software Association. (2001). State of the industry report 2000-2001. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from


Interactive Digital Software Association. (2002). Essential facts about the computer and video game industry. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from


International Hobo (2004). Demographic game design: How to make game design as valuable as marketing. Retrieved March 20, 2004, from


Ivory, J. D., & Wilkerson, H. (2002). Video games are from Mars, not Venus: Gender, electronic game play and attitudes toward the medium. Paper presented to the Commission on the Status of Women at the Annual Convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.


Jones, S. (2003). Let the games begin: Gaming technology and entertainment among college students. Retrieved March 6, 2004 from Pew Internet and American Life Project:


Kafai, Y. B. (1996). Electronic play worlds: Gender differences in children’s construction of video games. In K. Yasmin & M. Resnick (Eds.), Constructionism in practice: Designing, thinking and learning in digital world, (pp.97-123): Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Kafai, Y. (1998). Video game designs by girls and boys: Variability and consistency of gender differences. In J. Cassell & H. Jenkins (Eds.), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and computer games (pp. 90-117). Cambridge : MIT Press.


Kerns, K. A., & Berenbaum, S. A. (1991). Sex differences in spatial ability in children. Behavior Genetics, 21, 383-396.


Kim, T., Jackson, D.F., Yarger, D. N. (2000). Principles for the design and use of simulations in science learning as exemplified by a prototype microworld.  The Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science, 19(3), 237-52.


Klawe, M., Inkpen, K., Phillips, E., Upitis, R., & Rubin, A. (2002). E-GEMS: A project on computer games, mathematics and gender. In N. Yelland, A. Rubin & E. McWilliam (Eds.), Ghosts in the machine: Women's voices in research with technology (pp. 209-227/248): Peter Lang Publishing.


Kumar, D. D., & Libidinsky, L. J. (2000). Analysis of science education reform resources on the World Wide Web. American Secondary Education, 28(4), 16-21.


Laurel, B. (1998). An interview with Brenda Laurel. In J. Cassell & H. Jenkins, (Eds.), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and computer games (pp. 118-135). Cambridge: MIT Press.


Laurel, B. (2001). Utopian entrepreneur. Cambridge & London: MIT Press.


Laurel, B. (2003). Design research. As recorded by Jane Pinckard. Retrieved March 10, 2004 from GameGirlAdvance:


Lepper, M. R., & Malone, T. W. (1987). Intrinsic motivation and instructional effectiveness in computer-based education. In R. E. Snow & M. C. Farr (Eds.), Aptitude, learning, and instruction: III: Cognitive and affective process analyses (pp. 255-286). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Levine, S. C., Huttemlocher, J., Taylor, A., & Hangrock, A. (1999). Early sex differences in spatial skill. Developmental Psychology, 35, 940-949.


Littleton, K., Ashman, H., Light, P., Artis, J., Roberts, T., & Oosterwegel, A. (1999). Gender, task Contexts, and children's performance on a computer-based task. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XIV(1), 129-139.


Littleton, K., Light, P., Joiner, R., Messer, D., & Barnes, P. (1998). Gender, task scenarios and children's computer-based problem solving. Educational Psychology, 18(3), 327-340.


Miller, L., Chaika, M., & Groppe, L. (1996). Girls' preferences in software design: insights from a focus group. Interpersonal Computing and Technology: an Electronic Journal for the 21st Century, 4(2), 27-36.


Monhardt, R. M. (2000). Fair play in science education: Equal opportunities for minority students. The Clearing House, 74(1), 18-22.


Moor, J., & Zazkis, R. (2000). Learning mathematics in a virtual classroom:  Reflection on experiment. The Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 19(2), 89-113. 


Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1996). Effects of video game playing on measures of spatial performance: Gender effects in late adolescence. In P. M. Greenfield & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Interacting with video (pp. 115-140). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Phillips, C. A., Rolls, S., Rouse, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (1995). Home Video Game Playing in Schoolchildren: a study of incidence and patterns of play. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 687-691.


Philips, D., and Zimmerman, M. (1990). The developmental course of perceived competence and incompetence among competent children. In R. Sternberg and J. Kolligian (Eds.), Competence Considered (pp. 46-66). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Provenzo, E. F. (1991). Video kids: Making sense of Nintendo. Cambridge: Harvard.


Ray, S. G. (2003). Gender inclusive game design: Expanding the market. Hingham, MA: Charles River Media.


Rideout, V. J., Vandewater, E. A., & Wartella, E. A. (2003). Zero to six: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers and preschoolers: Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved March 16, 2004, from


Roberts, D. F., Foehr, U. G., Rideout, V. J., & Brodie, M. (1999).  Kids & media @ the new millennium: A comprehensive national analysis of children’s media use (Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation, 1999), 20. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from The Kaiser Family Foundation:


Robinson-Stavely, K., & Cooper, J. (1990). Mere presence, gender, and reactions to computers: Studying human-computer interaction in the social context. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 168-183.


Serbin, L. A., Poulin-Dubois, D., Colbourne, K. A., Sen, J. G., & Eichstedt, J. A. (2001). Gender stereotyping in infancy: Visual preferences for and knowledge of gender-stereotyped toys in the second year. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 7-15.


Schott, G. R., & Horrel, K. R. (2000). Girl gamers and their relationship with the gaming culture. Convergence, 6, 4 36-53.


Sherry, J., Holmstrom, A., Binns, R., Greenberg, B. S., & Lachlan, K. (n.d.). Gender and electronic game play. Submitted to Information Communication and Society. Retrieved March 6, 2004, from Department of Communications at Purdue University:


Sherry J., Lucas K., Rechtsteiner S., Brooks C. & Wilson B. (2001). Video game uses and gratifications as predictors of use and game preference. Paper presented at the ICA Convention Video Game Research Agenda Theme Session Panel. May 26. Retrieved March 16, 2004, from:


Skertic, A. (n.d.). The world according to Neopets. Retrieved April 29, 2004, from


Subrahmanyam, K., & Greenfield, P. M. (1996). Effect of video game practice on spatial skills in girls and boys. In P. M. Greenfield & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Interacting with video (pp. 95-114). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Subrahmanyam, K., & Greenfield, P. M. (1998). Computer games for girls: What makes them play?  in J. Cassell and H. Jenkins (Eds.), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and computer games (pp. 46-71). Cambridge: MIT Press,.


Subrahmanyam, K., Kraut R., Greenfield P., & Gross, E. (2000). The impact of home computer use on children’s activities and development. The future of children: Children and computer technology 10:2 (The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Fall/Winter 2000): 123-144. Retrieved from:


Swiatek, M. A., & Lupkowski-Shoplik, A. E. (2000). Gender differences in academic attitudes among gifted elementary school students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 23(4), 360-77.


Taylor, T. L. (2003a). Multiple Pleasures: Women and Online Gaming. Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 9 (1). 21-46.


Taylor, T.L. (2003b). Power gamers just want to have fun?: Instrumental play in a MMOG. In M. Copier & R. Joost (Eds.), Level Up, the first international conference of the International Digital Games Research Association. November 4-6, 2003. (pp. 300-311). Utrecht, The Netherlands: Faculty of Arts, Utrecht University.


Thomas, A., & Walkerdine, V. (2000). Girls and computer games, 4th European Feminist Research Conference: Body gender subjectivity crossing disciplinary and institutional borders. Bologna Italy.


Turkle, S (1988). Computational reticence: why women fear the intimate machine. In C. Kramare (Ed.), Technology and women’s voices: Keeping in touch (pp. 41-61). New York & London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.


Wight, D (1994). Boys’ thoughts and talk about sex in a working class locality of Glasgow. Sociological Review, 42, 702-737.


Woodard, E. H., & Gridina, N. (2000). Media in the home: The fifth annual survey of parents and children. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania:


Yager, R. E. (2000). The history and future of science education reform. The Clearing House, 74(1), 51-4.


Yee, N. (2001). The norrathian scrolls: A study of Everquest – (MMORPG research, cyberculture, MMORPG psychology). Retrieved March 7, 2004, from:,